Advantages and disadvantages of minerals wikipedia

What Are the Disadvantages of Mining?

Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators. The defining property of a semiconductor material is that it can be doped with impurities that alter its electronic properties in a controllable way. Most commonly used semiconductor materials are crystalline inorganic solids. These materials are classified according to the periodic table groups of their constituent atoms.

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Different semiconductor materials differ in their properties. Thus, in comparison with siliconcompound semiconductors have both advantages and disadvantages.

For example, gallium arsenide GaAs has six times higher electron mobility than silicon, which allows faster operation; wider band gapwhich allows operation of power devices at higher temperatures, and gives lower thermal noise to low power devices at room temperature; its direct band gap gives it more favorable optoelectronic properties than the indirect band gap of silicon; it can be alloyed to ternary and quaternary compositions, with adjustable band gap width, allowing light emission at chosen wavelengths, which makes possible matching to the wavelengths most efficiently transmitted through optical fibers.

GaAs can be also grown in a semi-insulating form, which is suitable as a lattice-matching insulating substrate for GaAs devices. Conversely, silicon is robust, cheap, and easy to process, whereas GaAs is brittle and expensive, and insulation layers can not be created by just growing an oxide layer; GaAs is therefore used only where silicon is not sufficient.

By alloying multiple compounds, some semiconductor materials are tunable, e. The result is ternary, quaternary, or even quinary compositions. Ternary compositions allow adjusting the band gap within the range of the involved binary compounds; however, in case of combination of direct and indirect band gap materials there is a ratio where indirect band gap prevails, limiting the range usable for optoelectronics; e. Quaternary and higher compositions allow adjusting simultaneously the band gap and the lattice constant, allowing increasing radiant efficiency at wider range of wavelengths; for example AlGaInP is used for LEDs.

Materials transparent to the generated wavelength of light are advantageous, as this allows more efficient extraction of photons from the bulk of the material. That is, in such transparent materials, light production is not limited to just the surface.

Index of refraction is also composition-dependent and influences the extraction efficiency of photons from the material. A compound semiconductor is a semiconductor compound composed of chemical elements of at least two different species.

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These semiconductors typically form in periodic table groups 13—15 old groups III—Vfor example of elements from the Boron group old group III, boronaluminiumgalliumindium and from group 15 old group V, nitrogenphosphorusarsenicantimonybismuth.

The range of possible formulae is quite broad because these elements can form binary two elements, e. Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy MOVPE is the most popular deposition technology for the formation of compound semiconducting thin films for devices.

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The following semiconducting systems can be tuned to some extent, and represent not a single material but a class of materials. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In Miller, L. Electronic Materials.

New York: Plenum Press. Archived from the original on Retrieved Kasap; Peter Capper Springer handbook of electronic and photonic materials. Tao, J. Boss, B. Moores, C. Degen Introduction to Solid State Physics 7th ed. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids.

Bibcode : JPCS Solid State Physics.If you would like to plant a garden, start off right with great soil. For both beginning and experienced gardeners, soil condition is one of the most integral elements of gardening success. Earthy, loamy, dark, rich-smelling, moist and fertile are adjectives landscape professionals use to describe ideal gardening soil. Whether to practice organic gardening methods or to rely upon chemical products is a major decision in soil management.

Weighing the advantages and disadvantages of natural and chemical fertilizers will help you decide which method is appropriate for your garden. If you're environmentally conscious, you probably prefer natural, organic products. But plants cannot tell the difference. Nutrients are nutrients. Organic and chemical fertilizers differ in terms of nutrient availability and lasting effects on plants, soil and the environment. Properly applied, both organic and chemical fertilizers are safe for people, pets, plants and the planet.

Test your soil to determine its nutrient needs before you fertilize. Established gardens may have a history of fertilizer use. Various nutrients, such as potassium and phosphorous, can build up in the soil. Nitrogen may be the only active growth-enhancing ingredient your soil needs.

Adding unneeded nutrients can disrupt pH levels and lead to toxic accumulations of salts and other harmful elements.

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In nature, decomposition of organic matter creates a natural fertilizer. Applying organic compost or well-aged herbivore manure adds nutrient-rich organic material to the soil, improving quality and texture. Adding organic material to the soil increases its ability to hold water; reduces erosion from water and wind; decreases compaction and crusting of the soil; and raises soil pH.

A study at Virginia Tech comparing organic or inorganic fertilizers determined that organic fertilizer is the better choice. Creating your own organic fertilizer from leaves, grass clippings, kitchen scraps and yard debris recycles waste into valuable, no-cost fertilizer.

Natural fertilizers are less likely to burn tender, young plants as they are less concentrated than chemical formulas. You may also want the peace of mind of knowing the food you cultivate is free of noxious chemicals. Natural fertilizers are chemical-free and can save you money. Natural fertilizers are slow to break down into the nutrients the growing garden requires. Many natural fertilizers, such as manure, seaweed or fish oil, are quite smelly and are too offensive to use on indoor plants.Before proceeding with the discussion activity for this tutorial, you should read the following short article.

The Wall Street Journal Online has an interesting debate between Jimbo Wales of Wikipedia and Dale Hoiberg, editor in chief of Encyclopaedia Britannica, and you may find this to be an interesting read [2] as well. When comparing closed versus open authoring approaches, it is worth looking at the history of Wikipedia, which has succeeded in creating the largest encyclopedia in history.

Wikipedia was preceded by the Nupedia [3] project, which also aimed to build a free content encyclopedia. Nupedia was not an open wiki like Wikipedia and adopted an extensive process of peer review before final publication of an article. After 3. Clearly this authoring model was not scalable, and was a strong motivation for Jimmy Wales, the founder of Nupedia to open up the authoring model by starting the Wikipedia project.

Matt Barton, provides a candid yet light hearted response to your concerns in a posting [4] on a list, which is repeated here for convenience of access. Matt says:. Jump to: navigationsearch.

In the old days you had to edit quite complex HTML syntax to create web pages. Categories : WE what is a wiki tutorial Wikieducator Tutorials. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. Community Community portal Web chat Mailing list. This page was last modified on 29 Januaryat This page has been accessedtimes. Privacy policy About WikiEducator Disclaimers. Objectives of this tutorial.

There is divided opinion and a healthy debate among educators concerning the quality of content developed in a wiki environment. In your opinion, do you expect to find significant differences in the quality of content when comparing open and closed authoring approaches? Given the recentness of the wiki phenomenon, research on this question is limited. Can both open and closed authoring models produce high quality material?

To find out more, consider the Wikipedia article on the reliability [1] of articles.

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This activity is designed for participants using these tutorials in a face-to-face workshop, or alternatively in an eLearning format with a group of learners. Consider the following questions, which can be discussed in small groups or using an online discussion forum: Do you have any concerns about the quality of educational resources developed using an open authoring approach? If so, what are your concerns? If not, how does an open authoring approach contribute to high quality learning materials?

In your opinion, should course development for education use closed or open authoring approaches? Give reasons for your view? What mechanisms can be adopted to assure quality of educational content developed in Wiki environments?

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Am I still concerned about the openness of wiki editing? What is to prevent such a website from anarchy? How does a wiki protect my authorship? What if someone deletes my work?Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable is a variety of electrical cable made from copper conductors inside a copper sheath, insulated by inorganic magnesium oxide powder. The name is often abbreviated to MICC or MI cable, and colloquially known as pyro because the original manufacturer and vendor for this product in the UK was a company called Pyrotenax.

advantages and disadvantages of minerals wikipedia

A similar product sheathed with metals other than copper is called mineral insulated metal sheathed MIMS cable. MI cable is made by placing copper rods inside a circular copper tube and filling the intervening spaces with dry magnesium oxide powder.

Limitations of mineral processing wikipedia

The overall assembly is then pressed between rollers to reduce its diameter and increase its length. Up to seven conductors are often found in an MI cable, with up to 19 available from some manufacturers. Since MI cables use no organic material as insulation except at the endsthey are more resistant to fires than plastic-insulated cables.

MI cables are used in critical fire protection applications such as alarm circuits, fire pumps, and smoke control systems. In process industries handling flammable fluids MI cable is used where small fires would otherwise cause damage to control or power cables.

advantages and disadvantages of minerals wikipedia

MI cable is also highly resistant to ionizing radiation and so finds applications in instrumentation for nuclear reactors and nuclear physics apparatus. MI cables may be covered with a plastic sheath, coloured for identification purposes. The plastic sheath also provides additional corrosion protection for the copper sheath.

The metal tube shields the conductors from electromagnetic interference. The metal sheath also physically protects the conductors, most importantly from accidental contact with other energised conductors.

Initially the insulating mineral was described in the patent application as pulverised glass, silicious stones, or asbestosin powdered form. In a British company Pyrotenaxhaving purchased patent rights to the product from the French company, began production.

During the Second World War much of the company's product was used in military equipment. Aroundthe British Cable Makers' Association investigated the option of manufacturing a mineral-insulated cable that would compete with the Pyrotenax product. The manufacturers of the products "Bicalmin" and "Glomin" eventually merged with the Pyrotenax company. The Pyrotenax company introduced an aluminum sheathed version of its product in MI cable is now manufactured in several countries.

Pyrotenax is now a brand name under nVent formerly known as Pentair Thermal Management. MI cables are used for power and control circuits of critical equipment, such as the following examples:. MI cable fulfills the passive fire protection called circuit integritywhich is intended to provide operability of critical electrical circuits during a fire.

It is subject to strict listing and approval use and compliance. A similar appearing product is mineral-insulated trace heating cable, in which the conductors are made of a high-resistance alloy. A heating cable is used to protect pipes from freezing, or to maintain temperature of process piping and vessels. An MI resistance heating cable may not be repairable if damaged.

Most electric stove and oven heating elements are constructed in a similar manner. The metal sheath and solid filling of MI cable makes it mechanically robust and resistant to impact; an MI cable may be struck repeatedly with a hammer and still provide adequate insulation resistance for a circuit. MI cable is approved by electrical codes for use in areas with hazardous concentrations of flammable gas in air; an MI cable will not allow propagation of an explosion inside the copper tube, and the cable is unlikely to initiate an explosion even during circuit fault conditions.

Metal sheathing will not contribute fuel or hazardous combustion products to a fire, and cannot propagate a fire along a cable tray or within a building. The cable is inherently fire-rated without additional coatings, and will survive designated fire tests representative of actual fire conditions longer than the enclosing structure.

When used within a tenanted area, carrying electricity supplied and billed to the landlord, for example for a communal extract system or antenna booster, it provides a supply cable that cannot easily be 'tapped' into to obtain free energy.

Although made from solid copper elements, the finished cable assembly is still pliable due to the malleability of copper. The cable can be bent to follow shapes of buildings or bent around obstacles, allowing for a neat appearance when exposed. Since the inorganic insulation does not degrade with moderate heating, the finished cable assembly can be allowed to rise to higher temperatures than plastic-insulated cables; the limits to temperature rise may be only due to possible contact of the sheath with people or structures.

This may also allow a smaller cross-section cable to be used in particular applications.As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any size-reduction requirements including, Limitations of mineral processing wikipedia, quarry, aggregate, and different kinds of minerals.

We can provide you the complete stone crushing and beneficiation plant. We also supply stand-alone crushers, mills and beneficiation machines as well as their spare parts. In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral engineering, mineral processing, also known as mineral dressing or ore dressing, is the process of separating The mining and mineral processing industry uses screening for a variety of processing Different types of motion have their advantages and disadvantages.

Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the The refractory ore treatment process is then followed by a conventional Advantages of the flotation process are that gold values are generally liberated. Ore sorting is the basic mineral concentration process where individual ore particles are Wikipedia lists some very important advantages:.

May 15, Mineral Processing Jaw crusher gyratory Crusher beneficiaton roll crusher Mineral Processing Engineer The importance of communition circuits in any mineral Rod mill grinding does present several cost advantages which.

advantages and disadvantages of minerals wikipedia

Jun 2, The chemical formulae and mineral names for most oilfield scales are shown in Table 1. Calcite deposition is generally a self-scaling process. The advantages are in cost and in putting the inhibitor into exactly the same Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals. Additional limitations of XRD analysis include:. Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a Disadvantages -- corrosive, irritating to the skin, effectiveness decreases with Aug 14, Possibly because fluorotic minerals are often carried by water, it is more Activated alumina is used in an adsorption process with very high fluoride The primary advantages to making a bucket or drum filter all lie in the For example, the removal of sulfur from gas processing plants was The following table lists the advantages and disadvantages of a number of alternative fuels Dec 24, You must load the Refinery with the ore only one ore type is May 29, ROI for their chemical composition via computer processing after the dataset hasAll Rights Reserved.

The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Rocks and Minerals. What are the advantages and disadvantages of minerals? Wiki User Mining is a disadvantage: - Can pollute nearby water sources - Destroys animal habitats The many uses are an advantages, minerals are used to make buildings, metals, machines, etc etc thats all i have.

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What are the disadvantages and advantages of liquor?Global marketing is also a field of study in general business management that aims to market products, solutions and services to customers locally, nationally, and internationally. International marketing is the extension of an organization's product or services into another country.

This can be achieved by exporting a company's product into another location, entry through a joint venture with another firm in the target country, or foreign direct investment into the target country. The development of the marketing mix for that country is then required - international marketing. This can include the use of existing marketing strategiesmix and tools for export on the one side, or a relationship strategy including localization, local product offerings, pricing, production and distribution with customized promotions, offers, website, social media and leadership, etc.

Internationalization and international marketing meets the needs of selected foreign countries where a company's value can be exported and there is inter-firm and firm learning, optimization, and efficiency in economies of scale and scope. The international marketplace has been transformed by shifts in trading techniques, standards and practices. These changes have been reinforced and retained by new technologies and evolving economic relationships between the companies and organizations involved in international trade.

The traditional ethnocentric conceptual view of international marketing trade is being counterbalanced by a more global view of markets. Domestic marketing is the limited commercialization of goods and services to a single, home country. The advantages of domestic marketing include familiarity with the extent of political risk, the quality of skilled human resources and of natural resources, and the ramifications of existing and likely legislation in relevant areas such as safety, hygiene, employment, and ownership of capital.

These markets are restrained by the laws and regulations of the country. Domestic marketing is typically organized in the headquarters. Global marketing requires a firm to understand the requirements associated with servicing customers locally with global standard solutions or products and localizes that product as required to maintain an optimal balance of cost, efficiency, customization and localization in a control-customization continuum to meet local, national and global requirements.

Global marketing and global branding are integrated. Branding involves a structured process of analyzing "soft" assets and "hard" assets of a firm's resources. Global brand identity development is the process of establishing brands of products, the firm, and services locally and worldwide with consideration for scope, product attributes, quality, uses, users and country of origin; organizational attributes; personality attributes, and brand-customer relationship; and important symbols, trademarks metaphors, imagery, mood, photography and the company's brand heritage.

A global marketing and branding implementation system distributes marketing assets, affiliate programs and materials, internal communications, newsletters, investor materials, event promotions and trade shows to deliver integrated, comprehensive and focused communication, access and value to the customers. The product must deliver a minimum level of performance. A global company must be able to tweak elements of a product for different markets.

For example, Coca-Cola uses two formulas one with sugar, one with corn syrup for all markets. The product packaging in every country incorporates the contour bottle design and the dynamic ribbon in some way, shape, or form. The bottle can also include the country's native language and is the same size as other beverage bottles or cans in that same country.

The price of a product varies based on factors such as costs of production, target segment, and supply-demand dynamics. There can be several types of pricing strategies, each tied in with an overall business plan. Pricing can also be used as a demarcation, to differentiate and enhance the image of a product. How the product is distributed is influenced by how the competition is being offered to the target market. With Coca-Cola, not all cultures use vending machines.